The development of the process was likely initiated as glass blowers experimented with molds as a way of producing special surface effects on their vessels. For instance, with pattern molding, the parison was initially shaped inside a mold that had been sculpted with diamonds, facets, circles, etc.. The mold would impart these designs to the body of the vessel. Typically the process was completed by removing the parison from the mold and blowing and spinning it in an off-hand fashion until the desired shape and size were achieved. The second step in the transition to molding involved the use of what are known as dip molds. In this circumstance, the size and shape of the parison was complete when it was removed from the mold. In the case of round bottles, the mold was simply a cylinder, open at one end, within which the glass blower blew his bubble.
Ancient Maya art
Artifacts as time markers Pipe stem dating The clay pipe industry expanded rapidly as tobacco smoking gained popularity in both England and America. Historical archeologists excavating English colonial sites often find pieces of white clay smoking pipes on their sites. In the s J. Harrington studied the thousands of pipe stems excavated at Jamestown and other colonial Virginia sites, noticing a definite relationship between the diameter of the pipe stem bore—or hole—and the age of the pipe of which it had been part.
The purpose of this guide is to provide a general introduction to some of the historic artifacts recovered from archaeological sites in the Upper Sangamon Basin of east-central Illinois.
Whereas contextual seriation is based on the presence or absence of a design style , frequency seriation relies on measuring the proportional abundance or frequency of a design style. Contextual seriation is often used for reconstructing the chronological sequence of graves as only the presence or absence of a design style or type is important. Frequency seriation is applied in case of large quantities of objects belonging to the same style. An example are assemblages of pottery sherds each including roughly the same range of types though in different proportions.
History[ edit ] Flinders Petrie excavated at Diospolis Parva in Egypt in the late nineteenth century. He found that the graves he was uncovering contained no evidence of their dates and their discrete nature meant that a sequence could not be constructed through their stratigraphy. Petrie listed the contents of each grave on a strip of cardboard and swapped the papers around until he arrived at a sequence he was satisfied with.
Whereas Petrie is considered the inventor of contextual seriation, Brainerd  and Robinson  were the first to address the problem of frequency seriation Shennan , p. It also assumes that design popularity will be broadly similar from site to site within the same culture.
Images: Amazing Artifacts from a Java Sea Shipwreck
Lovely terracotta oil lamp from the Holy Land that was in use during the time of Christ. This beautiful, stylized lamp is still useable and can be lit again with a bit of lamp oil and a small wick. Great raised patterns and still-charred spout!
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Find out what’s happening in the world as it unfolds. Artifacts from a spring Artifacts from a spring — As cleanup crews were restoring this Florida spring to pristine condition, underwater archeologists sifting through the detritus that was pulled from the depths discovered artifacts that track the history of humans in the state.
Hide Caption 1 of 11 Photos: Artifacts from a spring Artifacts from a spring — BC: This deer antler was likely a billet used to manufacture stone tools. Hide Caption 2 of 11 Photos: Bone fishhooks were used from the Archaic period until European contact.
The oldest ceramic objects.
Cancuen , panel 3, seated king with two subordinates. Second half 8th century. Copan stela A, Maudslay cast The main Preclassic sculptural style from the Maya area is that of Izapa , a large settlement on the Pacific coast where many stelas and frog-shaped altars were found showing motifs also present in Olmec art. Nonetheless, it remains uncertain if the inhabitants of Izapa were ethnically Mayan.
LOST AT SEA: A treatise on the management and ownership of shipwrecks and shipwreck artifacts by Michael C. Barnette. Somewhere out on the ocean, a ship is in distress.
That’s over 2, years! Why did the clan disappear? But many of the points found at the site were of the domestic variety – atlatl hunting darts. These points are notched to stay on the shaft when pulled from prey for reuse. But a peaceful society usually sags in weapons technology. Did a stone-age tribe with higher technology invade the clan? This seems unlikely, as resources were abundant throughout the entire region during this period.
Eventually, population in the region grew and conflicts did break out.
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D Medium teapot of reasonable good quality. The overall appearance and color is nice. There is a little side clearance in the lid and a short, now mended, hairline near the handle. The tip of the spout is restored. An unusual potters mark in the bottom is deep and clear. The teapot will be delivered with a Certificate of Authenticity Size:
Yellow Ware. Defining Attributes. Yellow ware is highly-fired earthenware with a buff to yellow paste and a clear lead or alkaline glaze. Chronology.
The blade is held in position by a circular flange to the top of the blade to keep in position when opened. The blade is secured by brass washers and iron pin. Nice early style with a honey brown patina to the handle Bale seals served two basic purposes in the colonial period with some variation in form and function. Their primary function was to provide proof that cloth or other goods had met the standard set by the guild which controlled the materials in the bale.
Most often, this was cloth since cloth was one of the most valuable and highly regulated and controlled materials in the 17th Century. The English wool trade and other industrial crafts relating to textiles were the backbone of the British economy in the 17th Century. This group was excavated in Philadelphia Heavy metal construction being a refined version of the earlier light weight open top lamps unusually made of light tinned metal.
The site was strategically important in Acadia, a French colony that included parts of what are now Quebec, The Maritimes, and northern Maine.
The first position is probably the most consistent with the mainstream view. There are also no written accounts or oral traditions which speak of dinosaur-like creatures living in the area. It seems that if they were common enough for thousands of figures to be produced depicting them, the giant beasts would also show up more often in local traditions – just like jaguars and butterflies do. One website in favor of their authenticity states that there is no recent native pottery tradition in the area.
On the other hand, if this claim is accurate, the figurines need not have been produced in the area either – even if they are just an elaborate hoax. Some of the clay figures from the huge collection.
Stone Age: Stone Age, prehistoric cultural stage, or level of human development, characterized by the creation and use of stone tools. The Stone Age, whose origin coincides with the discovery of the oldest known stone tools, which have been dated to some million years ago, is usually divided into three separate periods.
Fantastic large Medieval bronze attachment with central Crusader cross. The central cross inlaid with pearls, the flat backing with a stippled texture and around the outside chain-like link each with an attachment pin. In 3 pieces but nicely mounted in high quality frame. An interesting item that perhaps adorned a box or piece of furniture. Ex Los Angeles, CA private collection. An incredible display piece! Well-preserved with traces of original white slip, spout still charred from ancient use!
Nice lead pilgrim’s badge. One side with a radiant wheel patern around a central pellet. Suspension loop on top. Ex old English collection. Pilgrim holy water flask made of lead. Also known as an ampulla, these lead vessels were brought from pilgrimage places as a souvenir. Some scholars have suggested that many ampullae were used in the annual springtime ‘Blessing the Fields’ ceremony, in which the Holy Water they contained was sprinkled on the ground to give prayer for a good harvest.
In Florida, a spring cleanup yields cornucopia of history
His intact tomb, discovered by a UC-led international team, contained one of the most magnificent displays of prehistoric riches discovered in mainland Greece in the past 65 years. They led a team of 45 archaeologists and experts in various specialties as well as students during this summer’s excavations. Stocker stands in the shaft tomb the team uncovered. On the floor of the grave lay the skeleton of an adult male, stretched out on his back. Weapons lay to his left, and jewelry to his right.
Near the head and chest was a bronze sword, its ivory hilt covered in gold.
The Ringlemere Cup is a highly valuable artifact that was discovered by a lucky treasure hunter in the Ringlemere barrow, an archaeological site in the southeast English county of Kent. Dating to the Bronze Age, the Ringlemere Gold Cup is arguably the site’s most famous find.
Nanhai Marine Archaeology is committed to sharing information from its projects. This information is available online at: Brown and the company’s principal researcher; Sten Sjostrand. Published by the National Museum, Kuala Lumpur. Published by Pacific Asia Museum, Pasadena. Click here After finding, excavating or investigating seven ancient shipwrecks, the company assisted the National Museum in Kuala Lumpur to establish an exhibition showcasing artefacts from the shipwrecks.
This exhibition is commemorated in a special exhibition catalogue. Reprinted report about the Turiang: Claire Barnes 38 pages, photographs and black and white sketches. Oriental Art Magazine, summer issue containing two articles about the Xuande shipwreck and its controversial ceramic cargo. Containing an article by Dr. Brown and another article by Sten Sjostrand Draft report: Royal Nanhai and its Ceramic Cargo.
Green and pink 20th century Some hollow wares-bowls, pitchers, mugs, master salts, pepper pots, sugar bowls and mustard pots—display slipped decoration produced with multi-chamber slip cups. There are several distinct types of mocha decoration and they enjoyed different periods of production Gallo Thistle patterns, which combined a slipped flower with a mocha stem, were the earliest produced, introduced between and Most mocha motifs, however, post-date Tree-like design oriented vertically mocha motifs are from the mid th century to around , with these motifs on London-shaped bowls dating earlier than on rounded bowls.
The more horizontally oriented seaweed and feather mocha motifs became popular in the s Gallo
According to Norse mythology, Thor is a hammer-wielding god associated with thunder, lightning, storms, oak trees, strength, the protection of mankind, and also hallowing, healing and fertility.
A Mayan Jade Hunchback The Big Sandy Point In the study of the typology of projectile points used by prehistoric Americans during the Paleo and Archaic Periods in the Carolinas and Virginia, there seems to be only four types generalized by the point bases. The lanceolate type is straight sided without any notches or stems and is primarily known for the Clovis and Dalton styles of the Paleo Period, circa 10, to 8, BC. After the Paleo Period ended, with the demise of the large megafauna such as Mammouth, Mastodon and Giant Bison, the point types changed to notched bases and later to stemmed points.
The two notched basal types included the corner notched Palmer and Kirk and the side notched styles Hardaway and Big Sandy. These all began during the earliest times in the Archaic Period with a beginning date of at least 8, BC and ending around 6, BC. After that the stemmed type points mostly dominated for the next five or six thousand years. In this region, almost every collector wants to find the Hardaway, Palmer and Kirk points and seems not to care for one of the less common side notched varieties.
But that should not be since one of the most well made and oldest Archaic Period points is the seemingly obscure Big Sandy. The large side notches and the base are usually ground and often quite heavily. The base, which is normally the same width as the blade, may be straight or incurved except for the broad base variety in which the base is considerably wider than the blade, though that may simply mean that the blade width was reduced substantially by re-sharpening rather than the base originally being made wider.
The Big Sandy points were made by percussion flaking followed by pressure edge touch up and the blade cross section can be biconvex, rhomboid or with a median ridge. The point type was made of mostly rhyolite and silicified slate, in the Carolinas and Virginia, and occasionally of quartz, quartzite and jasper. Today the Big Sandy classification is considered at least as old as ten thousand years, if not older, because of one trait – the tool kit of these people is virtually identical to that of the older Clovis culture, that being Paleoindian type end scrapers, adzes, blades and flake tools.
Other scientists today consider that date to be at least one thousand years too young, meaning the point type could be more than eleven thousand years old which would place it into the Paleo Period.
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Awesome silver dagger or sword chape mount. Great design comprised of four openwork crosses around the perimeter. Nice surfaces, heavy earthen deposits.
A glazed ceramic bowl provides another clue that the Java Sea Shipwreck went down earlier than previously believed. This type of bowl has also been found in Sarawak, Malaysia, dating back to.
Although the dividing line between the Lower and Middle stages is not so clearly defined as that separating the Middle and Upper subdivisions, this system is still used by most workers. Lower Paleolithic On the basis of the very rich materials from the Somme Valley in the north of France and the Thames Valley in the south of England, two main Lower Paleolithic traditons have been recognized in western Europe.
These are as follows: The type tools of the Abbevillian formerly Chellean , which takes its name from the town of Abbeville, France, on the metre foot terrace of the Somme Valley, consist of pointed, bifacial implements, or hand axes. Their forms vary, and the flaking is generally irregular; it is probable that they were manufactured either with a stone hammer or on a stone anvil. Associated with these crude types of hand axes, simple flake tools are found, but they lack definite form.
The Abbevillian has been reported from deposits of lower Pleistocene First Interglacial age. The Acheulean, which begins in the Second Interglacial and persists to the close of the Third Interglacial, covers by far the longest time span of any of the Paleolithic traditions found in western Europe. The type site is on the metre terrace of the Somme Valley at St. Acheul, near Amiens, in northern France.